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保育士の幼児保育ノート&ちょっとだけ求人探し

保育士として働き始めた。保育士の勉強を始めた。そんな保育士さん向けに、保育のコツや知識をまとめました&ちょっとだけ私の求人探しのコト^^

第一次反抗期を抜けると、4歳がやってきます。
今まで何をするにも「いやだ!」と言っていた子どもたちも落ち着きを見せてくることでしょう。

生活面でも自立を見せ、そういったところでは手のかからない年齢になります。

そんな自立をし始めている4歳児に対するアプローチは一体どんなことに気を付けて行えばいいのでしょうか?
今回は、保育のねらいと合わせて詳しくご紹介いましょう。


友達とのかかわりを深め集団生活を楽しむ

今まで保護者や保育士といつも一緒にいた子どもたちも4歳児になってくると、少しずつ自立を始めます。
自立をはじめて、いよいよ今度は社会性を身に付けていくのです。

世界の中心は「自分」だけだった世界から、クラスの友達や保育士さんのいる新たな世界に飛び込みます。
今まではなんとも思っていなかったことに対しても、他人からの評価を気にしたり、他人と比較してみたりする時期でもあるのです。

友達を受け入れあえる4歳児

また、コミュニケーションも十分に発達し、自分の気の合う友達といつも一緒に遊んだりするようにもなるのです。
子ども同士で十分にコミュニケーションが取れますので、自分がどんな風に受け入れてもらえるのか?というのを経験します。

そして自分もまた他人を受け入れるという経験をしていくのです。
そのためには保育士は各個人の個性を十分に理解し、見守っていかなくてはいけません。

保育士と子ども、子どもと子ども、といった「話し合い」ができる機会を可能な限り作るのが大切になってきます。
こういった活動を続けていくことで、子どもが自分で活動に意味を見出し、達成感をより深く感じられるようになるのです。

創造性や想像性を育む

また自主的に活動を行うことも増え、「創造的に」遊んだり、「ごっこ遊び」では役割をずっと演じたりすることもできるようになります。
ここにはお互いのことを理解して行動ができる、といった作用があり遊びが発展していきます。

ここでの経験は社会性の基盤を作る重要な経験になり、人間関係を築いていく最初の一歩にもなります。
4歳児に十分な社会への適応能力を学習させることで、将来、社会性が促進されていくのです。


自分でできる喜びを感じ生活に必要な基本的習慣を身に付ける

4歳児になると、基本的な生活習慣はほぼ完成していきます。
いつまでも自分で服が着られないという子どもはいないでしょう。

個人差はありますが、完成へと導くような保育指導も必要になります。
この基本的な生活習慣は家庭との連携がなければなしえません。

保護者の協力や、育児指導を行っていきながら進められるのが理想ですね。
もし、協力が得られそうにないのなら、4歳児での基本的生活習慣を完成さえる必要性について伝えましょう。

生活習慣の定着が4歳児に必要な理由

この4歳児という時期に、生活習慣を身に付けていないと、ここから先、個人差が出てきます。
ここでいう個人差というのは、年齢が低いときに使っていた「個人差」とは意味が異なります。

まず、いつまでたっても自分で着脱できない子がいるとします。
そういった子は次の活動に移るのに時間がかかります。

保育園というのは集団生活の場ですので、個人差は徐々に大きくなり、いつまでたっても活動の輪に入れないといった「困り」が出てくるのです。
この「困り」は子どもにとって負担の大きなものです。

個人差があまり見られない小さなうちから基本的な生活習慣を完成させ、負担の少ない生活をさせてあげるように心掛けたいですね。
この時に必要なのは「子どもの自発性」を損なわせないということです。

時間がかかっても自発性を優先

時間的制約があるとどうしても待てないこともあります。
保育士さんが自分でしてしまったほうがクラス運営も前に進みやすいでしょう。

しかしここで自発的な発達を阻害してしまうと、いつまでたってもその子はできません。
個別の関わり方を大切にし、十分発達できるようにしましょう。
PR

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こんにちは。訪問ありがとうございます。
幼児保育について書いていこうと思います。保育士になりたて・なりたいと考えている保育士さんや、3歳児、4歳児、5歳児の保育について困っている方はのぞいていってくださいね。

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